I just upgraded from Ubuntu 13.04 to Ubuntu 13.10, and Firefox wouldn’t build with either clang or GCC.
clang was initially failing during configure, complaining about not being able to find joystick.h, though the underlying failure was an inability to find stddef.h. This Ubuntu bug describes a workaround, which is to do the following.
sudo ln -s /usr/lib/llvm-3.2/lib/clang/3.2/include
With that in place, I clobbered and rebuilt, and clang complained about a problem in allocator.h relating to a name __allocator_base, and GCC complained about C++11 support being insufficient.
Both failures had the same underlying cause, which is that both compilers are hardwired to look for some GCC-4.7 headers (which they shouldn’t) as well as GCC-4.8 headers. I filed a bug with Ubuntu about this.
I worked around the problem just by renaming
/usr/include/x86_64-linux-gnu/c++/4.7/. There may be more elegant workarounds, but that was good enough for me.