Knowing what is going on with git and many environments can be hard. In particular, it can be hard to easily know where the server environments are on the git history, and how the rest of the world relates to that. I’ve set up a couple interlocking gears of tooling that help me know whats going on.
One thing that I love about GitHub is it’s network view, which gives a nice high level overview of branches and forks in a project. One thing I don’t like about it is that it only shows what is on GitHub, and is a bit light on details. So I did some hunting, and I found a set of git commands that does a pretty good at replicating GitHub’s network view.
$ git log --graph --all --decorate
I have this aliased to
git net. Let’s break it down:
git log – This shows the history of commits.
--graph – This adds lines between commits showing merging, branching, and
all the rest of the non-linearity git allows in history.
--all – This shows all refs in your repo, instead of only your current branch.
--decorate – This shows the name of each ref next to each commit, like
“origin/master” or “upstream/master”.
This isn’t that novel, but it is really nice. I often get asked what tool I’m using for this when I pull this up where other people can see it.
Having all the extra detail in my view of git’s history is nice, but it doesn’t help if I can only see what is on my laptop. I generally know what I’ve commited (on a good day), so the real goal here is to see what is in all of my remotes.
In practice, I only have this done for my main day-job project, so the update script is specific to that project. It could be expanded to all my git repos, but I haven’t done that. To pull this off, I have this line in my crontab:
*/10 * * * * python2 /home/mythmon/src/kitsune/scripts/update-git.py
I’ll get to the details of this script in the next section, but the important part is that it runs
git fetch --all for the repo on question. To run this from a cronjob, I had to switch all my remotes to using
https protocol for git instead of
ssh, since my SSH keys aren’t unlocked. Git knows the passwords to my http remotes thanks to it’s gnome-keychain integration, so this all works without user interaction.
This has the result of keeping git up to date on what refs exist in the world. I have my teammate’s repos as remotes, as well as our central master. This makes it easier for me to see what is going on in the world.
The last bit of information I wanted to see in my local network is the state of deployment on our servers. We have three environments that run our code, and knowing what I’m about to deploy is really useful. If you look in the screenshot above, you’ll notice a couple refs that are likely unfamiliar:
deployed/prod, in green. This is the second part of the
update-git.py script I mentioned above.
As a part of the SUMO deploy process, we put a file on the server that contains the current git sha. This script reads that file, and makes local references in my git repo that correspond to them
Aside: What’s a git ref?
A git ref is anything that has a commit sha. So master is a ref. So
are any other branches you create. Git also tracks remote content in
the same way, in refs under
In short, a git ref is a generalization of tags, and branches, both
remote and locale. It is how git keeps track of things with names, and
it is what is written on the graph when
passed to log.
Wait, creates git refs from thin air? Yeah. This is a cool trick my friend Jordan Evans taught me about git. Since git’s references are just files on the file system, you can make new ones easily. For example, in any git repo, the file
.git/refs/heads/master contains a commit sha, which is how git knows where your master branch is. You could make new refs by editing these files manually, creating files and overwriting them to manipulate git. That’s a little messy though. Instead we should use git’s tools to do this.
git update-ref to manipulate refs. For example, to make my deployment refs, I run something like
git update-ref refs/heas/deployed/prod 895e1e5ae. The last argument can be any sort of commit reference, including
HEAD or branch names. If the ref doesn’t exist, it will be created, and if you want to delete a ref, you can add
-d. Cool stuff.
All Together Now
Now finally the entire script. Here I am using an git helper that I wrote that I have ommited for space. It works how you would expect, translating
git.log(all=True, 'some-branch' to
git log --all some-branch. I made a gist of it for the curious.
The basic strategy is to get fetch all remotes, then add/update the refs for the various server environments using
git update-rev. This is run on a cron every few minutes, and makes knowing what is going on a little easier, and git in a distributed team a little nicer.
The general idea is really easy:
- Fetch remotes often.
- Write down deployment shas.
- Actually look at it all.
The fact that it requires a little bit of cleverness, and a bit of git magic along the way means it took some time figure out. I think it was well worth it though.
Originally from mythmon.com