New search UI coming in Firefox 34

Update: it looks like this change will only be visible to a fraction of users initially, so please plan any changes to be backward-compatible.

The search UI was retooled and it will launch with Firefox 34 (at least in the US region). This landed late in the Firefox 34 beta cycle since it is related to our switch of default search provider in certain regions, which was announced very recently.

Unfortunately, this is bound to break some add-ons and themes. If your add-on overlays any content in the search UI or modifies its behavior, we strongly recommend that you test it on the latest beta (only the US English version seems to have this change for now). If you have any compatibility updates related to this issue in the review queues, please let us know on our IRC channel (#amo-editors) or the amo-editors mailing list.

Let us know in the comments if any of your add-ons break because of this.

132 responses

  1. Noitidart wrote on :

    Have the observer notifications been updated for this new UI?

    Has documentation on the observer notifications

    I love this new UI btw its spectacular!!

    I had started an quick addon using the searchbar earlier this month: but will revisit it after I see how this new thing works out. The need for this addon or feature is still there because: Purpose of it was, lots of times users highlight, right click, and click on “Search for ‘hlited stuff'”. But after page loads they realize it was wrong search engine so they have to change the engine then retype the search terms. This addons intent was to auto execute the search on change of the engine.

    1. Noitidart wrote on :

      What i mean by “Has documentation on the observer notifications” was to ask “Has documentation on the observer notifications been updated?” Because I can’t find documentation on it.

  2. Michael wrote on :

    What a mess. Landing something unfinished like this at the end of the beta cycle is beyond stupid. I really hope Yahoo’s $$$ is worth breaking the search experience of millions of users.

    1. lgb wrote on :

      I aggree.
      I’m pissed at this decision

    2. I am really angry right now wrote on :

      Now that this has rolled out on unsuspecting Firefox users (like me) I am really angry at Mozilla.
      The Firefox search bar was one of my favorite features. It was something that no other browser had. Now they went and fucked with it, and ruined it. Why?

      It is actually harder to do what I want to do with the search bar now. God dam it Mozilla stop changing the UX for the sake of change! You’re not making anything easier for me.

      1. Anoter Pissed User wrote on :

        I’m the same way here, this is a blatant money grab by Mozilla

      2. JOnb wrote on :

        The search UI sucks beyond anything that has sucked before!

        PLEASE BRING BACK THE OLD UI! I used the search function constantly. By selecting a seach engine, then highlight\right click- search. I cannot do that anymore! and have to resort to copy paste, then click down to the select an engine, and HOPE it searches the right place.


      3. Chris wrote on :

        Well said! My opinion exactly!

    3. JOnb wrote on :

      I FOUND A FIX, in a replay to a post later down the list here. Here is the copy of what was written:

      “Name Required wrote on December 1, 2014 at 10:10 am:

      Exactly, hate the change for the same reasons. Sometimes you just want to use a particular engine five times in a row. Fortunately, there’s that can be set to false in about:config for the rescue. I hope the option stays in and isn’t just a temporary fx.”

      I did this & it worked fine after I closed & restarted.

  3. Sacr1fyce wrote on :

    I am usually fond of any change that Firefox makes, including the recent interface overhaul.

    However, this breaks the way I usually search the web. I frequently highlight some text, change search provider, and then right-click to search that the highlighted text. Perhaps I am missing something, but with that method I can now only check the default search engine (which will probably start as Yahoo).

    I know I only have to copy and paste that text in the search box, but it is an extra step that slows my productivity. I am a researcher and switch to certain engines when needed.

    1. Name Required wrote on :

      Exactly, hate the change for the same reasons. Sometimes you just want to use a particular engine five times in a row. Fortunately, there’s that can be set to false in about:config for the rescue. I hope the option stays in and isn’t just a temporary fx.

      1. Testdummy06 wrote on :

        Thanks for posting a fix. I have been looking for hours to side step this mess.

      2. I am really angry right now wrote on :


        Thank you posting that fix here.

        You know what change (and the only change) I would like to see? I’d like to see Mozilla tell us UP FRONT how to opt out of any future changes they make to the UX. What I mean is:

        HEY MOZILLA! From now on when you publish an update and call it “Final” you must give your end-users a menu so we can opt-in or opt-out of of these stupid half-baked useability-breaking idiotic changes that you are currently forcing on your users. If I wanted to use a half-broken dumbed-down browser I’d go use Chrome or MSIE.

        I liked Firefox’s UX the way it was. I was used to Firefox’s UX the way it was. I WANT FIREFOX TO WORK THE WAY IT DID! I do not want or need Mozilla to change the UX without asking me. You people are not learning from your mistakes. The last time you messed up the UX there was a massive revolt underway that was only averted by the Classic Theme Restorer add-on. I thought perhaps Mozilla might learn from that blunder. But no, you made the same mistake again. You just went and changed the way things work for no real reason and it didn’t make anything better. What will it take for you to learn that breaking the UX is not a good thing? Don’t make me come over* there and swap out the steering wheels on all your cars for broomsticks.

        I shouldn’t have to hunt around on the internet for 30 minutes just get my browser to work the way I want it to again. Please, from now on have the Firefox updater tell me how to undo your stupid changes BEFORE you push the update on me!

        *In case that comment was too complicated for you to understand, it means that Mozilla changing the search bar to what they changed it to is like swapping out steering wheel on a car to for broomstick. That’s how useless and frustrating this change was.

        :[ Now I’m too angry to do my work.

        1. I am really angry right now – User 2 wrote on :

          I totally agree with you.
          Practicality and usability is more important of appearance.
          Without the Classic Theme Restorer I would have hated Mozilla.

        2. AngryUser wrote on :

          Amen. I fully agree. Also, thanks for the hint about, that really saved the day!

        3. NameWithHeld wrote on :

          Amen brother!!!

      3. Nicole Tedesco wrote on :

        Oh, thank you! Thank you! THANK YOU!

      4. Name (required) wrote on :

        Thank you so much for this

      5. mpp wrote on :

        Thank you for posting this FIX to get the old behavior of the search bar back. Like others who have posted here, I used the old functionality to simply cut and paste items into the search bar, knowing they were going to use my web site specific search.

        The new “feature” requires me to do 3x the work to get the old functionality. A backwards step.

      6. SEG wrote on :

        Thank you.

      7. jazkim wrote on :

        thank you so much

    2. drmab wrote on :

      Same here! I actually rolled back to 33 because of this.

    3. Jared wrote on :

      Just adding here, yup, this update broke how I search. I cannot understand how this is supposed to be more intuitive.

    4. Nicole Tedesco wrote on :

      I strongly agree. This has completely broken the way I use Firefox search. I am NOT happy with this change. Not one bit.

    5. flawedplan wrote on :

      Totally, it’s how I constantly interacted with online text whenever something sparks my interest, whether researching, shopping, looking up word definitions or what have you. And usually multiple searches on 1 item, say a movie – and search Google, Wikipedia, Twitter and YouTube, within seconds and without leaving the page. That’s over now. Don’t they understand how people use their computers?

    6. Telzey Amberdon wrote on :

      THIS IS SO ANNOYING!!! You broke how I search. I like to highlight text, change search provider, and then right-click to search that the highlighted text, and I do it constantly. Can’t do that no more–thanks so much, guys in the research department, I know how you just love to “streamline” things until they are useless! Now when I highlight my text, say a product I’d like to search for on Amazon, if I go up to change the search engine from Google to Amazon, it immediately upon choosing the search engine goes haring off to search on Amazon for whatever was in the search box, NOT the highlighted text. I lose my highlighted text as we go to a page I do not want to go to. Truly a WTF moment.

      THIS IS A TERRIBLE CHANGE and incredibly annoying. Also annoying is the fact that my various search engines are now confusing stacked boxes of itty-bitty icons that are difficult to parse (I’m almost but not quite legally blind and have visual confusion for the darnedest things, like tiny stacked boxes) instead of a nice list of search engines in a large font that I can read easily and slide the cursor down to choose. Speaking of icons, where is the itty-bitty icon in the search box that tells me what search engine I’m set for? It was so useful!

      How do I roll this back to the way it was???

  4. Arnb wrote on :

    Totally dislike the animation of the search box every time I type something. I’ve tried killing it with but then I lose the ability to change search engines, the down arrow does nothing in the search box. Also want the icon of my current search engine back in the search box like was done in FF 33.

    1. JOnb wrote on :

      you need to close firefox & relaunch after making the change

  5. smz wrote on :

    Any clue about when an extension fixing this horrible thing will be available?

  6. smz wrote on :


    Go to about:config and set to false.
    After a browser restart the old search will be back.

    Kudos to Aris!

    1. Jim wrote on :

      Thank you for sharing that, one more annoyance in my life removed!

    2. Ron wrote on :

      THANK YOU!

      Mozilla and Firefox have the distinct distinction of sucking slightly less than every other browser. If FF and Thunderbird aren’t crashing, they’re changing something to make it suck even more. But short of foregoing all search, that’s what I’m stuck with…

    3. flawedplan wrote on :

      It worked! Thank you so much!

    4. Guyinblue wrote on :

      thank you mate!
      @firefox: change stuff that is not working!!!!!!!!!!!!! not stuff that works very well. Your new search even comes without a descriptive text, I have to wikipedias in different languages and now I only have the same icon. That’s really TOTALLY UNNECESSARY and f*** annoying.

    5. Telzey Amberdon wrote on :

      OMG, thank you so much! It was hair-raising to do (gotta love how it warns you not to mess with anything OR SOMETHING TERRIBLE WILL HAPPEN when you go in to mess with things), but it worked beautifully. The search is back the way it was pre-streamlining into uselessness.

  7. meltz wrote on :

    What with the new search UI I have to do additional click to switch to different search engine which is even more work

  8. Tuan wrote on :

    You used to be able to quickly change the engine while typing (ctrl + up/down arrow). Now you have this clunky click and pick style.

    And what happened to the icon of the search provider instead of the magnifying glass icon now?

    If a feature is not complete why would you release it? It’s not even polished enough for an EA.

  9. collander wrote on :

    Way to fix something that wasn’t broken. To go from a quick drop down menu choice to having a tile layout that doesn’t work is great. It only searches using the default search engine regardless of the tile chosen.So every time I want to change the search engine, I have to choose a new default.
    I guess it’s downgrade time

  10. JC wrote on :

    Customized search engines that have the same picture cannot easily be identified now as the only things you see is the icon and have to hoover over to see the text. In addition you cannot rearrange the engines, this is really a problem you have created

  11. Angry wrote on :

    Once the search box had a discrete visual hint added when the current document contained an OpenSearch link, then the context menu had an Add command to add it as search provider. Was simple, intuitive, comfortable.

    Thank you for removing it and adding nothing in change.

  12. Mike wrote on :

    Web of Trust does not work in Yahoo search results with this version of Firefox

  13. guyfromkcmo wrote on :

    I agree with @Michael and @Sacr1fyce completely, this retool doesn’t make any sense and limits the usability dramatically. It either needs to reverted back completely or have an option (in about:config so I can lock it that way) to revert it back.

  14. Chuck Baker wrote on :

    As a developer, I use many different search engines (MDN, MozillaZine, Stack Overflow, Mozilla Cross Reference, etc.). I like the ability to select some text, right-click and have the text searched for with whatever search engine is currently set to default. Before I just had to click the drop-down arrow on the searchbar and select which search engine I wanted as the default. An icon would appear in the search box indicating the currently selected search engine.

    Now I have to jump through hoops to set the default search engine and there is no visible indication on the search box as to what the currently set default is. When the drop-down arrow is clicked, I get an array of possible choices but only the icons are shown. I don’t have every search engine’s icon memorized so I have to mouseover the icon to remind me. Doing all this is distracting and I often lose my train of thought when debugging, developing and testing an extension. This is counter-productive.

    Doesn’t Mozilla do any pre-market testing before releasing a change that has a fairly major impact on what a user is accustom to?

    Thank goodness setting ‘’ to ‘false’ in about:config undoes this mess.

    1. Kevin martin wrote on :

      I agree that the new search is horrid, and I’m relieved to see that I can use about:config to revert to the old one.
      I second Chuck Baker’s main complaints: It is too hard to change the default search, and there is no visual indication of what the current search *is*. It would appear that my usage of this follows his, insofar that I might want to do several searches in a row on one search engine, and later several searches on another engine. Thus, for any given search, the last engine used is the most likely one to be wanted, and with the new interface, changing the default just takes too much mousing around.

      The extra search engines that seem to have been thrown in are just a minor offense (just as I didn’t care much about U2 appearing gratis in iTunes).

  15. J.Neatly wrote on :

    What… a… disaster. Ridding yourselves of the indispensable search keyword for this? Astounding…

  16. Flo wrote on :

    Thank god for that setting, the new search is a mess, very uncomfortable.

  17. David wrote on :

    The new search absolutely sucks. I cannot recall having a more intrusive waste of resources in my life and I have been around a long time.

    Waste of time, waste of screen space and constantly being wrong. It never has a good suggestion. In fact its only suggestion seems to be lets bow to Yahoo!(!). I have disabled the feature but it keeps being in the way.

  18. Odd Bob wrote on :

    It’s noisy. It’s messy. It adds nothing worthwhile. How do I turn this crap off? If it can’t be removed, I’m leaving for Pale Moon permanently.

  19. f i x a c o wrote on :

    who’s the idiot responsible for this? honestly guys, sh*t like this is pushing me toward Chrome (shudder) for my entire user base (+140 seats).

    get it together.

  20. Jim wrote on :

    Wow, what a step in the wrong direction. Far too much visual clutter in that dropdown now. It’s a shame when programmers can’t leave a good thing alone.

  21. Testdummy06 wrote on :

    Multiple links and fixes related to Search UI update for those looking for Fix. Why must they break things. Could of at least asked “Do you want this (Y/N)”

  22. Szilard Barany wrote on :

    I am sorry to say but the new search bar is plain stupid. When I start to type the search term, there are suggestions but by clicking on any of them will only use the default search engine. If I click on alternative search engine, the unfinished search term will be used which in case e.g. Wikipedia will result in failed search.
    Print this out in huge letters (1 letter per sheet of paper) and stick it on the most frequently seen section of the office wall: “If is it not broken, do not fix it”.
    Do you guys do any research/analytics before you make a change to find out if that change is necessary? If people really have a problem there? Any telematics/usage stats collected?
    So, give back the old search bar functionality and focus on getting better HTML5 scores.
    Thanks in advance.

  23. snooze wrote on :

    The new search bar is not as good as the old one. Please include an option to use the old search bar and it’s functions.

    1. Ludwig wrote on :

      I’m strongly encouraging snooze’s suggestion!

    2. padsofthehands wrote on :

      Yes please do this. The new search bar seriously limits the functionality of the search field.

      1. padsofthehands wrote on :

        Easy fix:

  24. user wrote on :

    I’m sure the new search bar will be great for some people, but they way I use the search bar (doing several of searches in a row on one engine, then switching to a second engine for a search, then switchin gto a third engine for several searches, etc) makes the update really irritating. Having to either change my default engine every few minutes or click a different engine every time the default engine is being used drastically slows the rate at which I’m able to do research.

    I would REALLY like the option of having the search bar function the way it used to in which the icon for the engine currently in use is displayed and that engine continues to be used until another is manually selected.


    1. Ben wrote on :

      I found how to fix the new crappy search UI.

      Read this:

    2. anuszka wrote on :

      I agree…

  25. Brooke wrote on :

    Not a fan of the new search bar! I second the comment above, if its not broke dont fix it! Please undo this!! I am about to switch to Chrome.

  26. Putz wrote on :

    If it ain’t broke don’t fix it? And when it works perfectly don’t make it worse! I can’t stand this thing the way it is now.

  27. Ben wrote on :

    Once again Firefox has botched up the browser… this time the search ui.

    My browser is so heavily modded trying to keep it working and looking right, it’s more mods than browser!

  28. Nils Hart wrote on :

    I don’t like the new search bar at all. There is no way to delete them. Just hide. Also I cant re-order them. Plus it only shows icons and I don’t know what all the icons are. The old bar worked great and did not need to be changed at all. Fortunately I found out how to turn it off and get the old one back!

  29. floief wrote on :

    Ooooh, you have no idea how this bothers me. Yahoo site, mail, music, search ALWAYS thinks I’m in Canada. That would be okay, if I were actually in Canada. Their suborn refusal to update antiquated IP lists has cost me money (in the loss of ALL of my purchased music from a company they “absorbed”), time and driven me over the edge. Some of the comments I’ve read indicate that trying to change search providers is not always successful. So, I stay with 33 and wait…..or use Opera. (not a favorite but….better than Chrome for now.)

  30. gordy wrote on :

    It’s terrible!! Please go back to the OLD searchbox.

  31. GenericUser wrote on :

    How do I go back to the old Search? I’ll have to stop using Firefox if there is no way to get rid of this new search!

  32. Chris wrote on :

    Why fix what is not broken? Was anyone complaining about this? This breaks some of my search tools Is there a way to roll it back?

  33. John wrote on :

    This new search bar SUCKS

  34. Paul B wrote on :

    The old search box format was fine.

    I have 3 different ebay search engines in my list (different countries). the icons are all the same. Now I have to hover to find out which one it is.

    Why fix something that isn’t broken.!!!

  35. Katie N wrote on :

    Wow! Just updated to Firefox 34 and… where’s my search bar?! I figured out how to change the default back to google, but I had about 20 alternative search engines listed from my search bar, and now they’re only showing up if I weedle my way back through the options menu! I agree with those before me who’ve said, If it’s not broken, don’t fix it!! I want my search option box back!!

  36. Curt Nicol D.D. Ph.D. wrote on :

    The new search is *TERRIBLE* yet another example of “if it ain’t broke, fix it until it is”

    Thank god for the fix to return the functionality.

  37. mario wrote on :


    Why do you call this “improved” or “fixed” at all? Was it bad, was it broken, or what? Were there any bug entries related to the search box which I have missed? Did anybody aged over 7 ever checked this request, and used it with more than 2 engines? A step behind is a very very polite way to describe this fancy colors disaster you brought upon us. I would understand it coming from a school project, but from the Foundation? Was there nobody to tell that it doesn’t help with same-icon providers, it shoves the default upon your throat, it occupies half the screen if you have more than 10 providers, it doesn’t tell which is the default, it takes more clicks to use… if the designer of this would work in my team I’d send her/him to a introduction course in usability immediately.

  38. Patrik wrote on :

    Just one more thing to add to the pile that has to be reverted when installing Firefox. Are things like this done to spite your users or are the UI people not able to understand the different features of Firefox?

    Why can’t you have a version of Firefox with just security updates added?

  39. Alan wrote on :

    Thank you so much for the helpful about:config tweak “”

    Problem for me when I use it is that when it goes back to it’s old style search, It now shows double of my search engines!

    I have used Firefox FOREVER but I’m sorry guys, each new change is making me dislike it.

    For example, the lack of “Customise” options there is now. I like and have always had my browser set a certain way and I can’t do that with the latest (I think since 28) versions.

    I want my Back/Forward, Home, History, Favorites and Reload button all in a certain place… Now to reload I have to goto the end of the URL bar or right click on the page somehwere.

    Anyway sorry I know that is nothing to do with this I just do not like the way FF is going and I can’t stand that there is never a button to tick that just lets you put things how it USED to be. I only keep updating because I have to to keep my browser secure, otherwise I’d still be on Firefox 28.

    Anyway Sorry again and thanks for the tip.

  40. Lei Zhao wrote on :

    The new search bar is stupid. I give me back the old search bar I have used for years.

    In the old search, I change the default search bar instantaneously. Just Ctrl + k, then Ctrl + up / down will change the search engine, it remains there. It was super convenient but now it’s gone. I will switch to chrome and type the beginning part of the search website and hit Tab. Or use IE instead, in which I can still the ctrl + E and arrow key trick to switch search engine instantaneously.

    I don’t need the stupid suggestion.

  41. Transparency wrote on :

    I think that people seem to be ignoring a huge and important piece (aside from the shoddy and non-intuitive UX that overwrote user preferences)l

    The Search Provider Icon is missing.

    They changed the search provide that I had set to a specific provider and hid the Search Provider icon so I wouldn’t know what my search provider was until I hit search.

    This is almost dishonest.

    This is NOT Open!

    This is NOT Transparent!

    And committing these crimes for the sake of funneling search and ad revenue towards a partner violates the trust that one puts in Firefox to be an open, transparent safe and impartial __web browser__.

  42. steve wrote on :

    I thought it was me just being dumb rather than the Mozilla dev team so good to see I’m not alone among all the disgruntled users.

    One workaround is to use the great add on ‘Add to Search Bar’. You can add searches from any web page you visit and if you add an abbreviation – like the first two letters for instance – you can just search directly from the main address bar eg. to search say Start Page you’d just type ‘st hotels’. It’s really quick. If you want privacy make sure you add the search from the https page (if the site has that option). Of course this method doesn’t let you browse your search engines like the old drop down from the search box.

  43. Mary Ann wrote on :

    I am also not a fan. Can I opt out?

    How do I revert to FF 33, as others have done?

  44. Please revert this change wrote on :

    Before, there was an icon to the left of the search bar that indicated the current search engine at a glance. Now, I have no idea which one is selected until I click the search bar. I also can’t search using the currently selected search engine by selecting+right clicking text. Also, the new Ctrl+Up/Down functionality is slow and does not work consistently. Why remove functionality from the browser? Updates should add new features instead of removing useful ones. The new design is unintuitive. Please roll back this change.

    1. Daniel wrote on :

      I totally agree with most of the comments here. This UI change is unbecoming for me.
      My user experience needs to see an icon in the search bar, for me to know which search I currently use. I change the configured default search engine around 5-6 times within ten or fifteen minutes. So this is an absolute no-go.
      Example: Search related special terms on wolframalpha, changing to wikipedia to lookup more detailed articles for these terms, googling around for more info, translating some special terms to other target languages by use of translation toolbars, back to google, back to wikipedia and so on…

      I also raised my disappointment with one of the previous UI changes and would like to repeat it here again.
      I never understood why I can’t keep the bookmark this page star, without wasting space for the show your bookmarks button (I won’t use that one ever again, after finding out what it did, after clicking it once). Or why can’t I remove the open menu button, which I don’t want? It was good for me that it wasn’t there before and it would be great if users could decide whether they want to have that one.

      A good UI should be modifiable by user decisions, in my opinion. A good UI keeps elements users can’t change consistent over a long time and should only be changed after involving the users base, this needs time and sometimes encouragement.

      The last great UI change was in my opinion from FF3.6 to FF4…FF7. The beta phase of FF4 was long and interesting.

  45. Joe wrote on :

    I updated to 34 and immediately went back to 33. I hate the new search bar, the layout and how cumbersome it is. It doesn’t show names of the search engines, allow customization or work as intuitively as before. This needs to change.

  46. Adam wrote on :

    You need to restore the old search bar or I’m quite happy switching over to Google Chrome, I hate the new search bar it is completely impractical!

  47. Lee Maguire wrote on :

    As an IT professional I find it hard to believe that this un-thought out change was dumped into the 3.4 beta and foisted on users. I’ve spent more time trying to explain the reasoning behind this and time on the phone with work arounds for my customers than I have on any other MS debacle sent down the pipeline.
    Please make a change back to the older drop down menu for easier and faster search engine changes . The click count is unacceptable. I support Open source and Mozilla in particular but this was a mistake.

  48. Jon wrote on :

    WORST UPDATE EVER. They have taken the best, most customizable search bar out there and have turned it into an ABSOLUTE PILE OF GARBAGE. You literally can’t do anything useful with this anymore. Anyone who thinks this is a good feature is either 1) An employee of Mozilla 2) Smoking crack or 3) A complete idiot who probably gets tech advice from employees at Best Buy. The search bar has become completely useless and I will now have to start using another browser. This is just AWFUL. Is there a fix to un-ruin this feature? Because this is so stupid, it’s actually worse than Windows 8. What a complete bunch of morons who came up with this idea. I’ll bet it was some jerk over there who feels the need to make all the decisions. I honestly hope that whoever decided this change for all of us rots in Hell.

  49. Antoine Gersant wrote on :

    I am always happy to see UX changes in improvements in Firefox. However, I feel like this new search UI is a clear step backwards in usability.

    There appears to be no way of using the keyboard to select a search engine (!), and also no easy way to see the current search engine. This completely eliminates my most common search pattern which is:
    – Press Ctrl+K to focus the search bar
    – Type or paste keyword(s)
    – Press Ctrl+Up/Down to select search engine
    – Press Enter to search

    I’m glad there is an about:config setting to opt out of this new iteration on the feature. I hope future updates will be more careful not to *reduce* the usability of the browser.

  50. DrJKH wrote on :

    Great job Mozilla! You’ve “fixed” the search UI until it’s broken! You’ve just about chased me off. Caving to the extreme left wing ideologues was bad enough, but changing features until they’re useless… that pretty much forces me to start looking for an alternative browser. Chrome is looking better every day.

More comments:1 2